As long as there are sports, various injuries may occur, and the injuries will inevitably affect sports performance and health. The knee joint is the joint with the most complex structure, the largest structure, and the strongest leverage force in the whole body, and sports injuries are the most common. Recently, more and more patients have come to Hiker to recover their knees. When asked about the cause of their injuries, there are some who have run injuries, some who have accidentally sprained their knees while playing basketball, some who have fallen from skiing, some who have suffered injuries from playing football, and even those who have been injured while riding a bicycle. It can break the front fork, but most of them are caused by sports.
Sports injuries refer to various injuries that occur during sports. Its occurrence is related to factors such as sports training arrangement, sports items, sports technology, sports training level and sports environment, so this is the basic difference between sports injury and general industrial and traffic trauma. Sports injuries can not only make athletes with high training level unable to participate in training and competitions, severe cases will cause disability or even loss of life, but also affect the mental health of athletes and hinder the normal development of sports. The prevention and treatment of sports injuries is the main part of the science of sports injuries. Every athlete and coach who participates in systematic training, no matter professional or amateur, should understand, be familiar with and master the basic knowledge, theories and methods of sports injury prevention and treatment.
Generally speaking, most sports injuries can be prevented. As long as we grasp and understand the causes and laws of their occurrence, pay attention to summing up experience, widely publicize and improve the theoretical and professional level, and take corresponding measures, sports injuries can be reduced. to a minimum.
So why do sports injuries occur in the human body?
Because some parts of the human body have their own anatomical weaknesses and special requirements for sports technology, sports training may cause injuries. We must understand and pay attention to the basic causes of sports injuries in our daily life, which is of positive significance for the prevention of trauma. In summary, the basic causes of sports injuries are as follows:
1. Unreasonable preparatory activities
Starting formal activities without warming up or insufficient warming up is the most likely to cause sports injuries. Because good muscle strength is an important factor to prevent certain parts of the injury, such as strengthening the quadriceps, it will play an important role in the prevention of chondrosis patella; too much preparatory activities, such as discus athletes should control the special and special activities of knee force The number of auxiliary exercises is more important for novices; the content of the warm-up activities is improperly arranged, cannot be well combined with the special content, or lacks special warm-up activities; the warm-up activities violate the principle of step-by-step, and may be too fast at the beginning, too hard, etc. Injuries occur; the time for warm-up is not mastered, and the time to official training or competition is too long or too short.
2. Insufficient training level
Insufficient physical fitness training, special technical training, strategic and tactical training, and psychological quality training are closely related to the occurrence of sports injuries. When the physical fitness is poor, the muscle strength and elasticity are poor, the reaction is slow, and the joint flexibility and stability are also weak, so it is easy to cause injury. When the specific technical training is insufficient, the essentials of the movements are often poorly grasped, and there are shortcomings and mistakes. Such poor technical movements can easily violate the body structure, skill characteristics and biomechanical principles during exercise, so sports injuries are prone to occur. Injuries caused by insufficient strategic and tactical training are rare, but they are easy to be ignored, such as improper speed distribution in endurance sports, and injuries caused by unreasonable selection of time and location in racing competitions. In addition, insufficient cultivation and training of athletes’ psychological quality, athletes’ lack of bravery, tenacity, perseverance, decisiveness, not arrogant in victory, not discouraged in defeat, and self-control are also one of the reasons for injuries.
3. Violation of training principles
Sports training is a very scientific practice with its own rules. It must strictly abide by the principles of individual treatment and consolidation, the principle of systematic and step-by-step progress, the principle of self-consciousness or enthusiasm, the principle of intuition, the rational rhythm and the emphasis on developing the body. Quality and other basic principles. Violation of these principles will inevitably result in overuse injuries and sometimes acute injuries. Because athletes of different genders, ages and different events have different anatomical structures and physiological functions, even people of the same age and gender have considerable differences in physical development and physiological function levels of organs. If not, they should be treated differently. The so-called consolidation principle means that after acquiring a certain quality or learning an action, it must be continuously consolidated. A skill is also a conditioned association that fades away without reinforcement or reinforcement. On the contrary, if you fail to exercise regularly and consolidate the movements you have learned, you will be prone to injury if you are overconfident when doing it again. Systematic and step-by-step principles have great significance for injury prevention. The mastery of a skill requires a certain process. Therefore, when learning, you should first learn the decomposed movements, and then learn the coherent movements; learn simple movements first, and then learn complex movements; learn easy movements first, and then learn more difficult movements. Analyzed from the visceral activities of the body, this is a process of adaptation, so training must be systematic. Before each training session or competition, preparatory activities should be done. The preparatory activities enable the motor system, cardiovascular system, internal organs and nervous system to adapt to a state similar to the competition; If the conditioned reflex is not restored, it is easy to cause damage.
4. Improper training and competition organization
The causes of injuries caused by improper training and competition organization can be summarized as follows: lack of medical supervision or athletes and coaches do not pay attention to the awareness of doctors, training and participating in competitions with illness or excessive fatigue; violation of training principles; lack of necessary protection, the common situation is Improper or unprotected coaches, premature departure from protection, athletes failing to take necessary protective measures before training or competition, such as lack of protection equipment such as ice hockey or not paying attention to the use, etc.; improper competition organization arrangements, such as competition date or temporary Changes in time, improper selection of competition routes or order of events; damage to field equipment and protective clothing or failure to meet hygienic requirements, such as uneven and hard track and field fields, too high bunker edges, unreliable horizontal bars, motorcycles, cars, etc. , The damage to the protective equipment during the ice hockey game can cause injuries to the athletes.
5. Poor athletic performance
Athlete fatigue, illness, the recovery phase after an illness, calluses on the hands, and poor mental state can all contribute to injury. Especially when athletes are fatigued or overtired, their strength, accuracy and coordination function are all significantly reduced, their alertness and attention are reduced, and the body’s response is sluggish. These factors can all lead to errors or trauma in movement technique. In order to prevent the occurrence of trauma when the state of sports competition is bad, strenuous exercise must be prohibited, technically complex and precise movements should be prohibited, and people who lack exercise should be prohibited from participating in highly intense sports competitions and various physical fitness tests, and training should be correctly formulated Program and game schedule. In the horizontal bar, gymnastics and fencing sports, trauma often occurs due to excessive sweating or calluses on the palms. The prevention mainly depends on the protection of the palms at ordinary times. Psychological factors such as “restlessness and nervousness” sometimes appear in poorly trained or well-trained athletes, so that trauma will inevitably occur. In order to eliminate this situation, inhibitory preparatory activities and massage methods can be used. Athletes are in a bad mood and low in mood; express themselves well, have a strong desire to compete, forget themselves, ignore the possibility of subjective and objective conditions, and exercise blindly or recklessly, which is also prone to injury.
6. Bad weather
Insufficient light, too high or too low climate, slippery ground after rain and snow, etc., may cause damage. Exercising when the temperature is too high may cause heat stroke, and when the temperature is too low, frostbite may occur. Therefore, corresponding precautionary measures must be taken to avoid accidents.
For example, in cold and humid climates, the mobility, elasticity and mechanical endurance of muscles are greatly reduced, which makes it easy to damage the muscles and ligaments. Frostbite often occurs in sports such as skiing and skating in winter, and there are more chances of frostbite in addition to humidity and cold wind. Therefore, adequate preparations must be made in order to reduce sports injuries caused by climatic factors.